Skip to main content

Full text of "Southern outrages : atrocities as they passed through the hopper : facts for the American people to read : brutal outrages upon Frances Thomas [sic] : 1866 vs. 1876"

See other formats


PERKINS LIBRARY 

DuLe University 



Rare Books 



$otttl\ef^ Outrage^! 




Startling Disclosures ! 




1866 \~:*. 1876. 



Facts for the American People. 

Pam p htet ft: 

Duke Uniyer^Lty, Ub«$ 

ST. LOUIS, MO.: 

ZETTIRIEIK:^ PUBLISHING- COMPANY. 

1876. 



PRICE, CTS. 



^outl^efn Outfctge^. 



Atrocities as they Passed ihrcugli the Hopper. 



Facts for the American People to Read. 



BRUTAL OUTRAGES UPON 

FRANCES THOMAS. 



1866 VS. 1876. 



ST. LOUIS, MO.: 
1876. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2014 



https://archive.org/details/southernoutragesOOeure 

k 



PREFACE. 



In order that the public may fully understand the truth in 
regard to the Memphis riots of 1866, as set forth in the minority 
report by Hon. George S. Shanklin, of Kentucky, then a member 
of the U. S. House of Representatives, we have taken the pains 
to investigate the affair by seeking out and conversing with 
several gentlemen from the North who were in Memphis at the 
time. From a gentleman born and educated in the State of New 
York, who was living in Memphis at the time the riots occurred, 
but now a resident of St. Louis, we have the following state- 
ment : 

The day the riots occurred several hundred negro troops were 
paid off, and a grand drunken spree followed. A v,hite and a 
negro boy got into a fight on the bridge in South Memphis, and 
two policemen who were close by went and parted the boys. The 
negro boy, being much the larger, was severely pounding the 
white boy. Some of the drunken negro soldiers, who were near, 
became very indignant at the police for parting them, and at 
once attacked them, killing one and wounding the other. The 
wounded policeman retreated, and was soon reinforced by several 
others, who endeavored to arrest the negroes, but were repulsed, 
when they also retreated and called to. their assistance a number 
of citizens. In the mean time the negroes were gathering rein- 
forcements very rapidly, until they numbered hundreds. The 
whites were repulsed repeatedly, and the alarm spreading all over 
the city, nearly every white man who had any arms at his com- 
mand rallied to support the authorities in quelling the negro 
mob. The fears of the citizens were still more aroused when the 



iv 



PREFACE. 



fact became generally known that several days previous a faithful 
negro man had communicated to his former master the fact that 
the negroes iC were going to rise up and murder every rebel 
in Memphis " The negroes drove through the streets in hacks 
and other vehicles, and amused themselves shooting down white 
men. The riot commenced about six o'clock in the evening and 
lasted until ten o'clock the next day. During the night nearly 
every white male in the city was on guard, and before morning 
the negroes retreated to Fort Pickering. The police and citizens 
finding it impossible to dislodge them from the fort, the military 
was called into requisition, who made a charge upon the fort. 
The negroes, seeing the approach of the troops, at once gave up, 
and most of them fled to the country. One hundred or more 
were arrested and placed under guard, but were released in a day 
or two without ever being held accountable for their riotous acts. 
Some twelve or fifteen white men were killed and many wounded. 
At least thirty negroes were killed. 

' ^After these riots the attention of the U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives was called to the matter, and a committee of inves- 
tigation appointed, consisting of Hon. Elihu B. Washburne of 
Illinois, Hon. John M. Broomall of Pennsylvania, and Hon. 
George S. Shanklin of Kentucky, two Republicans and one 
Democrat, Mr. Shanklin. The committee went to Memphis to 
investigate the trouble, and there were two reports made on the 
matter, a majority and minority report, Mr. Shanklin making the 
minority report. The official proceedings of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, following, speak for themselves. 



THE OUTRAGE MILL. 



In May, 1866, there occurred what was termed a riot in Mem- 
phis, Tennessee, or series of riots, which were heralded forth 
throughout the country as the work of the " rebels," the princi- 
pal victims being the colored population. 

By reference to the Congressional Globe and Appendix, 
the official organ of Congress, we find the following proceedings 
of the House, on page 4.159, under date of July 25th, 1866, 
being the Thirty-Ninth Congress, first session : 

Mr. Broomall — In the absence of the Chairman [Mr. Wash- 
burne, of Illinois,] of the Select Committee appointed by this 
House to investigate the late riots in Memphis, Tennessee, the 
chairman being detained from the House by illness, I am in- 
structed by the committee to submit a report, which, together 
with the testimony, I move be laid on the table and printed. 

Mr. Shanklin — I submit a minority report from the same 
committee. 

Mr. Broomall — I am also instructed by the same committee 
to move that there be printed for the use of this House, twenty 
thousand extra copies of the reports and testimony, and fifty 
thousand copies of the reports without the testimony. 

The Speaker — The motion to print extra copies will go to the 
Committee on Printing, under the law. 

The question was upon laying the reports and testimony upon 
the table and ordering the same to be printed. 

Mr. Le Blond — I hope this testimony will not be printed. I 
do not think any member will read it even should it be printed ; 



6 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



and therefore it would be a useless expense to print any copies 
at all. The whole subject-matter of the investigation is entirely 
of a local character ; a matter the regulation of which belongs 
wholly to the State of Tennessee. But Congress has taken 
upon itself to go into the different States to regulate what should 
be regulated by the police of the State. 

Mr. Scofield — We have been regulating the business down 
there for the last five years. [Laughter.] 

Mr. L° Blond — I should not be surprised if there had not been 
some regulating down there, and some regulating should have 
been done North, instead of all being done in the South. If 
that had been done, I have no doubt we should to-day have had 
a better state of things and a united country. But, sir, I am 
opposed to printing this report for the reasons I have named and 
for other reasons. The report, as I am informed, will make 
eight hundred pages of printed matter. It details the circum- 
stances of a riot which took place in the State of Tennessee, and 
the facts of which have been published all over the country. 
We are just as well advised now of what occurred there, and 
what gave rise to that riot, as we should be if this report were 
printed for electioneering purposes. I shall call for the yeas 
and nays upon the motion to print. I will now yield to my 
friend from Pennsylvania [Mr. Johnson] . 

Mr. Johnson — The subject-matter of this investigation wa» 
nothing more than a riot. Nobody ever pretended at the start 
that it was more ; and the committee, I understand, have arrived 
at the same conclusion. A riot in Memphis no more calls for 
investigation by this House than a riot in New York or Phila- 
delphia. If: every riot occurring anywhere in the country is to 
be investigated by a congressional committee, and a volumin- 
ous report of the testimony to be printed at the public expense 
for circulation throughout the country, I think we shall find our- 
selves involved in a larger outlay of money than the people will 
justify. 



I 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



7 



But, sir, in considering this proposition it must be borne in 
mind that it has a political object, a partisan purpose. This 
investigation has been so treated by the public press of the coun- 
try. I understand, however, that it has failed of its object ; and 
the matter will not be bettered by printing the report. We are 
already circulating more documents than are read by the people. 
We are already expending more money for publications of this 
sort than the people desire shall be so expended. This money, 
it must be remembered, is drawn from the people by direct taxa- 
tion ; it comes out of the labor and sweat of the country. I re- 
spectfully protest against this system. I have no objection to 
printing the ordinary number of copies of this report ; but as for 
publishing fifty thousand copies for circulation all over the coun- 
try under the franks of members, I think we should leave such 
publications to private enterprise, or to the political partisans 
whose purposes it may subserve. 

Mr. LeBlond — Mr. Speaker, I oppose this proposition in 
entire good faith. This report is a document which, in my 
judgment, ought not to be printed at all ; and one of the princi- 
pal reasons why I think so is that, as I understand, the commit- 
tee recommend no action whatever on the part of Congress. If 
no action is to be taken upon this pile of testimony which the 
committee have reported, what can be the use of printing it in 
order to be sent broadcast over the country? If gentlemen 
wish to economize let them commence now. 

Mr. Broomall — Mr. Speaker, I do not at all wonder that the 
two gentlemen who have spoken are opposed to the printing of 
this report and testimony. They know what it is. I will not 
pretend to make any argument in favor of printing it. I know 
whence the opposition comes and the reason for it. I call the 
previous question. 

The previous question was seconded and the main question 
ordered ; which was upon ordering the printing of the usual 
number of copies of the report and testimony. 



8 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES 



Mr. Le Blond — My proposition was to print the report alone r 
without the testimony. 

The Speaker — The gentleman's proposition comes too late. 
That might have been offered as an amendment to the motion of 
the gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. Broomall]. But the 
House is now acting under the operation of the previous question. 

Mr. Harding, of Kentucky — I rise to a point of order. I 
wish to inquire whether it is in order to move a reconsideration 
of the vote by which the report was accepted. I understand 
that it is not the report of the committee at all. 

The Speaker — There is no such motion known in the practice 
of this House. When the report of the committee is presented 
any gentleman can raise the question whether the committee hare 
actually agreed to the report. But after the report has been 
received, no member can raise the question that it is not the 
report of the committee. 

The yeas and nays were then ordered, when the result of the 
ballot was, yeas, 85 ; nays, 23 ; not voting, 58. So the motion 
to print was agreed to. 

Mr. Le Blond asked if the minority report would be printed 
also, and the Speaker replied that both reports, together with the 
evidence, would be printed. 

Again, on the 27th of July, in the House proceedings, as 
recorded on pages 4265 and 4266 of same volume, we find the 
following : 

Mr. Shanklin — Mr. Speaker, it might be supposed, inasmuch 
as I was a member of the committee that made this report, that 
I have some knowledge of what the majority report contains ; but 
I am under the necessity of stating to this House that I have 
never seen, and never had an opportunity of seeing, the majority 
report in this case. The honorable chairman of that committee 
[Mr. Washburne] has never thought proper, at any time since the 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



9 



committee was appointed, to call the committee together for the 
purpose of consultation. On last Friday the gentleman from 
Pennsylvania [Mr. Broomall], a member of the committee, in- 
quired of me, as a member of it, whether I had my minority 
report ready. I told him that I had. I inquired whether the 
majority report was ready to be presented. He said it was nearly 
so ; that the chairman was sick and unable to give further atten- 
tion to the subject, and that the report had been delivered over 
to him to make such corrections as he might think proper, after 
which it would be presented. It was agreed between the gentle- 
man from Pennsylvania and myself that on last Monday morning, 
at nine o'clock, we should meet at the committee-room for the 
purpose of comparing the majority report with the minority 
report. He was to have the opportunity to see the minority re- 
port, and I was to have an opportunity to see the majority report. 
Under this agreement between my friend from Pennsylvania and 
myself, I met him at the committee-room at the hour appointed. 
When I arrived he was not there. I had my report, which I had 
prepared and ready to submit to him, but he informed me that 
the majority report had not yet been sent to him, but that it 
would be forthcoming during the day. He said that he would 
send for it. It was not forthcoming that day, nor even the next 
day. I understood the gentleman that it would be forthcoming 
soon, and that I should have an opportunity to see it. On the 
next evening I was notified by the gentleman from Pennsylvania 
that the report would not be forthcoming until it was offered in 
the House. I had no opportunity to see the report. The priv- 
ilege of examining the majority report was denied to me, and my 
concurrence in that report was refused. 

Mr. Speaker, there is one fact of which I am satisfied. It' 
that report presents any matter peculiar or different from ordinary 
riots or mobs, I am satisfied those gentlemen must have drawn 
upon their imaginations, and not upon the testimony. Whatever 
that report contains, whether it is matter of public interest or 



10 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



not, I am unable to say. I have never seen it or been permitted 
to read it. My minority report, I insist, is entirely based upon 
facts. It has been subject to the inspection of any member of 
the committee at any time they thought proper. It is more than 
can be said, I am sorry to say, for the report of the majority. 

The Speaker — The gentleman's time has expired, and the 
floor is now assigned to the gentleman from Pennsylvania for five 
minutes. 

Mr. Broomall — Mr. Speaker, I have only one thing to say in 
answer to the complaint of the gentleman from Kentucky, that 
the committee has not met him to consult about the report. It is 
within the knowledge of the members of the House there has 
been no time since the return of the committee from Memphis 
when the three members have been present in the House, in con- 
sequence of one or two, or even the three of them, having been 
ill, probably from the climate of Memphis and the incessant labor 
imposed upon them in taking testimony. Now, the report was 
prepared by the gentleman from Illinois [Mr. Washburne] , the 
chairman of the committee. I myself conferred with the gentle- 
man from Kentucky with respect to the report. I also conferred 
with the gentleman from Illinois. If they do not agree with one 
another, it is no fault of mine. With regard to what the gentle- 
man has said, that we have drawn from our imaginations if we 
say this matter differs from ordinary mobs or riots, I will say one 
word. Why, sir, there was no riot in Memphis, notwithstanding 
the terms of the resolution which was referred to us. There was 
no riot, and it is an abuse of language to say so when the civil 
authorities of a city of sixty thousand inhabitants conspired to- 
gether to murder in open day unoffending citizens of the United 
States. 

Mr. Shanklin. — I ask the gentleman to yield to me. 
Mr. Broomall. — The gentleman has had his five minutes, 
and I can yield to no one. 

There were besides five cases of rape upon helpless and unof- 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



11 



fending women, under circumstances that the gentleman himself 
united with us in saving, ought not to be put in the testimony. 
It was too revolting and too horrible to be repeated anywhere. 

Mr. Speaker, there ought to be printed at least the number of 
reports mentioned in the resolution which was referred to the 
Committee on Printing ; and I ask the chairman of the commit- 
tee [Mr. Laflin] to allow me to make the motion to double each 
of the numbers contained in his report. 

This subject does possess some political and public signific- 
ance. The great question now before the country is whether 
the people of the eleven States lately in rebellion are yet in a fit 
condition to be intrusted with a share in the government of the 
country. The animus and the spirit of the people enter into 
the inquiry. The details of this report and testimony go to that 
very spirit and that very animus of the leading people of the 
city of Memphis. I do not wonder that the gentleman from 
Kentucky [Mr. Shanklin] likes to shield his friends. I do not 
wonder that peculiar means have been used — I do not refer to 
the amiable gentleman, the chairman of the Committee on Print- 
ing [Mr. Laflin] to prevent this report from getting before the 
country at all. 

Mr. Shanklin — I would ask my colleague [Mr. Broomall] 
whether the proof does not establish clearly and conclusively the 
fact that the mass of the men engaged in these outrages against 
the helpless colored people of the city of Memphis were registered 
voters under the franchise law of Tennessee, which was passed 
by what is known as the Radical party of that State. 

Mr. Broomall — I can only say in answer to the gentleman, 
that I can well understand that the very worst of the friends of 
gentlemen upon the other side would swear themselves in under 
the franchise law. It is very possible that there are men among 
those who vote in Tennessee who are worse than the average of 
those who are excluded ; I do not know how this is. But I 
would remind the gentleman [Mr. Shanklin] that the Recorder 



12 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



of the city of Memphis, the leader of the mob, the man who 
urged them on to commit these foul deeds, is the Vice-President 
of the Johnson club in Memphis. And now I have only to add, 
that, if the gentleman complains that he has not been allowed 
to sign our report, I will agree that he shall Have an opportunity 
to append his name to it. 

Mr. Laflin — Declined the honor and called the previous ques- 
tion. 

The report of the Committee on Printing was finally argeed 
to, which was as follows: That one thousand extra copies of 
the reports and evidence be printed, and that 10,000 extra cop- 
ies of the reports, without the evidence, be printed. 

Again, on page 4,285, of same document, under date of 
House proceedings of July 27th, we find that copies of the report 
of the majority of the committee were in circulation, while nore 
of the minority report were to be had, which caused Mr. Shank- 
lin to rise to a privileged question and inquire why this was. 
The whole matter was finally explained and it was recorded as 
the order of the House that both reports were to be printed to- 
gether. 

We have thus presented the official proceedings of Congress in 
the first act of the political drama, and now come to the second. 

As before stated, the majority of the committee, consisting of 
Messrs. Washburne, of Illinois, and Broomall, of Pennsylvania, 
made their report to the House on the 25th of July, 1876, in 
which report special attention was called to the horrible outrages 
in the following language : 

FRANCES THOMPSON. 

' ; The crowning acts of atrocity and diabolism committed dur- 
ing these terrible nights were the ravishing of five different col- 
ored women by these fiends in human shape, independent cf 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES 



13 



other attempts at rape. The details of these outrages are of too 
-shocking and disgusting a character to be given at length in this 
report, and reference must be had to the testimony of the par- 
ties. It is a singular fact that while the mob was breathing 
vengeance against the negroes and shooting them down like dogs, 
jet when they found unprotected colored women they at once 
'conquered their prejudices,' and proceeded to violate them un- 
der circumstances of the most licentious brutality. The rape of 
Frances Thompson, who had been a slave and was a cripple, 
using crutches, having a cancer on her foot, is one to which 
reference is here made. On Tuesday night seven men, two of 
whom were policemen, came to her house. She knew the two to 
be policemen by their stars. They were all Irishmen. They 
first demanded that she should get supper for them, which she 
did. After supper the wretches threw all the provisions that 
were in the house which had not been consumed into the bayou. 
They then laid hold of Frances, hitting her on the side of the 
face and kicking her. A girl by the name of Lucy Smith, about 
sixteen years old, living with her, attempted to go out at the 
window. One of the brutes knocked her down and chocked her. 
They then drew their pistols, and said they would shoot them and 
fire the house if they did not let them have their way. The 
woman, Frances Thompson, was then violated by four of the men, 
and so beaten and bruised that she lay in bed for three days. 
They then took all the clothes out of the trunk, one hundred dollars 
in greenbacks belonging to herself, and two hundred dollars be- 
longing to another colored woman, which had been left to take 
care of her child, besides silk dresses, bed-clothing, etc. They 
were in the house nearly four hours, and when they left they said 

they intended Ho burn up the last G — d d d nigger, and drive 

all the Yankees out of town, and then there would be only some 
rebels niggers and butternuts left.' The colored girl, Lucy 
Smith, who was before the committee, said to be sixteen or sev- 
enteen years old, but who seemed from her appearance to be two 



14 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



or three years younger, was a girl of modest demeanor and 
highly respectable in appearance. She corroborated the testi- 
mony of Frances Thompson as to the number of men who broke 
into the house and as to the policemen who were with them. 
They seized her (Lucy) by the neck and choked her to such an 
extent that she could not talk for two weeks to any one. She 
was then violated by one of the men, and the reason given by 
another for not repeating the act of nameless atrocity was, that 
she was so near dead that he would not have anything to 
do with her. He thereupon struck her a severe blow upon the 
side of the head. The violence of these wretches seemed to be 
aggravated by the fact that the women had in their room some 
bed covering or quilts with red, white and blue, and also some 
pictures of Union officers. They said, 'You niggers have a mighty 
liking for the damned Yankees, but we will kill you, and you will 
have no liking for any one then. This young girl was so bally 
injured that she was unable to leave her bed for two weeks." 




FRANCES THOMPSON AS SHE APPEARED BEFORE THE COMMITTS3. 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



15 



The evidence was as follows : 
Question. State your name and residence ? 
Answer. My name is Frances Thompson ; I live in Gayoso 
street, here in Memphis. 

Q. What is your occupation? 

A. I sew and take in washing and ironing. 

Q. Have you been a slave ? 

A. Yes sir. 

Q. Where were you raised ? 

A. I was raised in Maryland. All our people but mistress 
got killed in the rebel army. 
Q- Have you been injured? 

A. I am a cripple. [The witness used crutches.] I have 
a cancer in my foot. 
Q. Were you here during the late riots ? 
A. Yes sir. 

Q. State what you know or saw of the rioting ? 

A. Between one and two o'clock Tuesday night seven men, 
two of whom were policemen, came to my house ; I knew they 
were policemen by their stars ; they were all Irishmen ; they 
said they must have supper, and asked me what I had, and said 
they must have some eggs and ham and biscuit ; I made them 
some biscuit and some strong coffee, and they all sat down and 
ate ; a girl lives with me ; her name is Lucy Smith, she is about 
sixteen years old ; when they had eaten supper they said they 
wanted some woman to sleep with ; I said we were not that sort 
of women and they must go ; they said " that didn't make a 
damned bit of difference ;" one of them laid hold of me, and 
hit me on the side of my face, and holding my throat choked 
me; Lucy tried to get out of the window, when one of them 
knocked her down and choked her ; they drew their pistols, and 
said they would shoot us and fire the house if we did not let 
them have their way with us ; all seven of them violated us two ; 
four of them had to do with me, and the rest with Lucy. 



16 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



Q. Were you injured ? 

A. I was sick for two weeks ; I lay for three days with a 
burning fever. 

Q. Did any one attend you ? 

A. I had a cold before, and Dr. Rambert attended me after 

this. 

Q. Were you robbed ? 

A. After they got through with us they just robbed the house ; 
they took the clothes out of my trunk, and took one hundred dol- 
lars that I had in greenbacks belonging to me, and two hundred 
that belonged to a colored woman that was left with me to keep 
safe for her. 

Q. Did they take anything else ? 

A. They took three silk dresses of mine and a right nice one 
of Lucy's ; they put the things into two pillow slips and took 
them away. 

Q. How long did the men stay ? 

A. They were there perhaps for nearly four hours ; it was 
getting near day when they left. 
Q. Did they say anything ? 

A. They said they intended to " burn up the last G — d d — d 
nigger." 

Q. Did you know any of them ? 

A. They were all Irishmen ; there was not an American 
among them. 

Q. Did anything else take place ? 

A. There were some quilts about that we had been making ; 
they asked us what they were made for ; when we told them for 
the soldiers, they swore at us, and said the soldiers would never 
have them on their beds, and took them away with the rest of 
the things ; they said they would drive all the Yankees out of the 
town, and then there would be only some rebel niggers and but- 
ternuts left ; I thought all the time they would burn the house, 
but they didn't. 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



17 



The testimony of Lucy Smith, as reported by the committee, 
was as follows : 

Q. State your name and how old you are. 

A. Lucy Smith ; I am going on seventeen years of age. 

Q. Have you ever been a slave ? 

A. I have been a slave girl, and have been free four years 
come July next. 

Q. Do you live in this city ? 

A. I live in Memphis, and was raised here. 

Q. Where were you at the time of the riots ? 

A. I was living with Frances Thompson at the time of the 
riots. 

Q. State what you know of the late riots ? 

A. On Tuesday, the first night of the riots, some men came 
to our house. We were in bed. They told us to get up and get 
some supper for them. We got up and made a fire, and got 
them supper. 

Q. What else took place? 

A. What was left of the sugar and coffee and ham they 
threw into the bayou. 

Q, How many men were there ? 

A. There were seven of them ; but I was so scared I could not 
be certain. 

Q. Did they rob you ? 

A. We had two trunks. They did not unlock them, but just 
jerked them open. They took one hundred dollars belonging to 
Frances, and two hundred dollars belonging to a friend of Fran- 
ces, given her to take care of. They took all the money and 
clothes, and carried them off. 

Q. Did you know any of them ? 

A. There were two policemen. I saw their stars. 

Q. What else took place ? 

A. They tried to take advantage of me, and did. I told 
them I did not do such things, and would not. One of them 

l 



18 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



said he would make me, and choked me by the neck. My neck 
was swollen up next day, and for two weeks I could not talk to 
any one. After the first man had connection with me, another 
got hold of me and tried to violate me, but I was so bad he did 
not. He gave me a lick with his fist, and said I was so damned 
near dead he would not have anything to do with me. 
Q. — Did they do anything else? 

A. — We had some quilts in the room that we had been quilting 
red, white and blue. They asked us if we had made them be- 
fore or after the Yankees came. We said after. They said, 
" You niggers have a mighty liking for the damned Yankees, but 
we will kill you, and you will have no liking for any one then." 
There were some pictures in the room. We had General Hooker 
and some other Uniun officers, and they said they would not have 
hurt us so bad if it had not been for these pictures. They were 
in the house a good while after they hurt me, but I lay down on 
the bed, for I thought they had killed me ; it was mostly from the 
choking and the lick on the side on my head. 



1876. 



Having presented a synopsis of the report of the Radical 
Committee of 1866, we now come to 1876, just ten years after- 
wards, when the real facts in the case are brought to light, and 
show in what manner the Radical leaders have imposed their 
frauds upon the people of the country, at the cost of tens of 
thousands of dollars of the people's money. 




FRANCIS THOMAS AS HE APPEARED BEFORE THE RECORDER. 

July 11, 1876, the Memphis Appeal contained this item : 
"The police have discovered a negro man who, for several 

years, has been wearing female apparel, and was believed to be 

a woman." 



20 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



The Appeal of July 12 contains the following report of the 
investigation of Francis Thomas : 

" Great excitement was caused yesterday in police circles 
by the arrest, examination and trial of a negro who has lived in 
this city twenty-seven years, but was supposed to be a woman. 
' Frances Thomas' was the name by which the negro was called. 
Among the negroes that of ' Old Crutchy' was often used, be- 
cause of an injured leg. Night before last ' Frances Thomas ' 
was arrested on the charge of wearing female clothing, for it had 
already been told to the police that the creature was a man. 
Few believed this, for many had always considered Thomas an 
hermaphrodite. The chief of police, however, was not at all 
doubtful as to the result of an investigation, for Dr. J. H. 
Nuttall, a well-known physician of this city, had informed the 
police that he would establish the fact that Thomas was a man 
and not a woman. The arrest was therefore made at Dr. Nuttall's 
instance, he being induced to this step in order to prevent Thomas 
from practicing nefarious designs upon the different house- 
holds to which, by reason of female attire and dress, he had 
access. All along Thomas had served as a cook, house-woman 
or domestic servant, employers thinking that he was a woman. 
Thomas has cooked and washed for more than one good family 
in this city, and has had opportunities for doing a great deal of 
mischief. 6 He,' ' she' or ' it,' as the negro may be termed, for- 
merly kept a vile den on Madison street, near Bayou Gayoso, 
and since then an infamous house near the County Jail. He has 
been more than once arrested upon the charge of lewdness and 
immorality, and it is said the negro has proved the ruin of many 
persons, both white and black. He managed to escape punish- 
ment, but never abandoned his vile habits and corruptions. To 
prevent this was the cause of his arrest. Thomas was put in the 
station-house night before last to await the trial before Recorder 
Duff yesterday morning. As the question of sex could only be 
determined by examination, Dr. J. H. Nuttall, with Drs. W. V. 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



21 



Taylor, R. H. Taylor and Julius Wise (the latter recently of 
Cincinnati, Ohio), were called in to do this. These physicians, 
who are well known here, visited Thomas in his cell, and told him 
the object of their visit. Thomas said he would not submit to 
an examination, but on being told that force would be used, con- 
sented. The physicians then proceeded with the examination, 
and, as Dr. Nuttall predicted, found "Frances Thomas" to be a 
fully developed man, and in no respect a woman ; in fact, Thomas 
is not even an hermaphrodite, as he claimed to be. The physi- 
cians made a thorough examination of Francis Thomas. 

" The evidence given on the trial before Recorder Duff was to the 
effect that upon the examination of Francis Thomas they found 
that he had none of the developments of a woman whatever, nor 
anything that could possibly be mistaken as any part of the iden- 
tities of the female sex. The evidences show that there is no 
part of a woman about him, the organs being entirely those of a 
male in every respect. Francis Thomas, moreover, would have 
a heavy beard did he not shave every day. He is a strong and 
well-developed negro man, and Recorder Duff imposed upon him 
a fine of fifty dollars, as he was only charged with and convicted 
of a misdemeanor. In default of the money with which to pay 
his fine, Francis Thomas was put upon the chain-gang, sta- 
tion-keeper Tim Hope having purchased him a suit of male 
clothing. The chain-gang were working on an alley near Mar- 
ket Square, but when Francis Thomas was added to it, the fact 
soon became known and attracted a large crowd of men, women 
and boys — mostly negroes. The crowd continued to increase, 
and soon numbered hundreds of spectators who were anxious to 
get a glimpse of the negro man that had been regarded as a wo- 
man. The crowd became very much excited, confusing the chain- 
gang and preventing work. Francis Thomas was an object of 
the greatest wonder, small boys, old men, women and children, 
pressing around and asking a thousand questions. Owing to the 
big crowd, Tom Hope conducted Thomas back to the Adams 



22 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGES. 



Street Station-house, but during the afternoon hundreds of per- 
sons visited his cell to get a look at and talk to the negro. When 
an Appeal reporter asked Thomas why he had adopted female 
clothing, he replied, 'It is none of your d — d business.' 
Thomas seemed to be quite angry, especially when made to take 
a lot of false hair and braids from the top of his head. Like 
most females, he wore false hair, but did not use chalk or rouge. 
He declared that he had not had a fair trial ; that Tim Hope was 
a bad man and that he would dispatch direct to Washington for 
justice. Francis Thomas was doubtless recalling the fact that in 
1866 he testified before the Congressional Committee which came 
here to investigate the Memphis riots ; that he was a respectable 
lady of color and had been ravished eighteen times by as many 
different Irishmen in this city. This evidence the Republican 
Congressional Committee received, and upon it based a ' raw- 
head-and-bloody-bones ' report. This story of rape went the 
rounds of the Radical press calling forth the most vindictive arti- 
cles and a demand for troops. How sad to think of Francis 
Thomas' ruin ! Perhaps the Republican members of the com- 
mittee in the Mississippi investigation may find similar subjects 
for the accomplishment of its purposes. And thus ends the 
story of Francis Thomas." 

The following additional information was given by the Jlpp eal 
of August 2 : 

"As we understand, Doctors Allen, Cutler and R. H. Taylor, 
by request of a leading Republican of this city, yesterday made 
another examination with a view to verify the sex of Francis 
Thomas. We need hardly say, in view of the reputation of 
these gentlemen, that the examination was thorough, and being 
so, resulted in a complete verification of the verdict rendered by 
Dr. Nuttall and his coadjutors. Francis Thomas is a man, and 
a bad one — a very bad one — at that." 

Lucy Smith, whose testimony followed that of " Francis 
Thomas," was a colored prostitute, who lived with the negro 



SOUTHERN OUTRAGE S . 



23 



brute, and was in bed with her" when " she " was visited by 
the " rioters." 

Thus, reader, you have presented some facts for your careful 
consideration, facts which go to show the manner in which the 
people's money has been squandered to the tune of tens of thou- 
sands of dollars, and all for the purpose of perpetuating Radical 
rule. The incidents herein cited are but a few out of the many 
thousands that have occurred during the past fifteen years, and 
which has cost the country millions of dollars. What think you 
must be the real character of the prominent leaders of the Re- 
publican party, such men as Washburne, etc., when they will 
practice such deception and fraud upon the American people. 
Think of the colored virgin, Francis Thomas (a big buck negro), 
being ravished by eighteen Irishmen. The villainous deception 
and fraud daily practiced by Radical leaders is almost beyond 
conjecture. But the day of judgment has come — the people 
have at length become conscious of the fact that there must be an 
entire change of the government officials, and that honest and 
pure men must be given the reins of government ere the last 
semblance of a Republican form of government has passed be- 
yond their reach. 



RADICALISM VS. LIBERTY. 



Monarchy vs. Republican Government. 




Are the American People Serfs or 
Freemen ? 



Americans, you, who prize liberty above everything else, have 
a sad spectacle before you. The most important events in the 
history of this country since the Revolution are now transpiring. 
On the one side are arrayed freemen, those who love Liberty, 
Constitution and Law, and on the other those who seek to destroy 
the last semblance of the principles embodied in our American 
Constitution, which was purchased at the sacrifice of so many 
valuable lives, and handed down to us by our forefathers, ever 
believing that their children and children's children would pre- 
serve it untarnished. These are indeed trying times. Now is 
not the time for excitement or wild experiments. Every man 
who desires the future welfare of the country should calmly, can- 
didly and seriously meditate upon passing events, and firmly 
resolve to act well his part. In a very brief manner we propose 
to review past events, those of recent occurrence, and those pre- 
dicted or threatened to occur. 



RADICALISM VS. LIBERTY. 



25- 



1. A powerful secret political organization has existed in this 
country for several years, which has for its object the disfran- 
chisement of all foreign-born citizens ; the proscription of every 
citizen, be he native-born or foreign, who is a member or in sym- 
pathy with the Roman Catholic Church. These are facts well 
known to the American people. Radical papers throughout the 
country have boasted of the matter and openly declared that their 
organization numbered one million voters. The American Al- 
liance, which met in Philadelphia last July, resolved to support 
Hayes and Wheeler, the Republican candidates, who, if not mem- 
bers of this oath-bound organization, at least are in full sympa- 
thy with it. 

2. Secret military organizations, in the interest of the Radi- 
cal party, exist all over the country, whose sworn duty is to obey 
the officers in carrying out the designs of the Radical party ; 
"peaceably if ice can, but forcibly if necessary , even 
though we have to wade in blood up to our knees." 

3. The Indian troubles were brought on by designing men 
sent out among the red men, solely with the view of raising a 
larger army to be used during the present Presidential campaign 
in the Southern States, to compel those States to declare for the 
Republican candidates. Already the Indian war has ceased and 
preparations are being made to throw most of those troops in the 
South. 

4. Cavalry horses are being purchased and shipped South for 
the use of the troops and others, to spread terror and force that 
people to support the Radical nominees. 

5. Whisky, contract and every other imaginable sort of rings 
exist all over the country, headed and run by the highest govern- 
ment officials, to enrich those in power and rob the people. 



26 



RADICALISM VS. LIBERTY. 



6. The Government employees, all over the country, who re- 
fuse to pay over a certain per centage of their salaries for Radi- 
cal campaign purposes, are discharged. 

7. The State officers of Iowa have refused to furnish arms 
to military organizations, assigning as a reason therefor, that 
all arms ivere to be used during the Presidential cam- 
paign. 

8. Arms and ammunition are being shipped to negroes all 
over the South, for the purpose of murdering white men, women 
and children, and carrying those States for Hayes and Wheeler. 

9. It has been discovered that secret agents from the East 
have been sent to St. Louis for the purpose of organizing all the 
negroes and uniforming them, at Radical expense, who march 
through the streets making night hideous with their yells ; thus 
hoping to create a riot and use it throughout the Northern and 
Eastern States for political capital. They have no hope of car- 
rying Missouri, but hope to incite the negroes to violence, and 
by the sacrifice of fifty or one hundred of their lives, add thou- 
sands of votes to their party candidates. 

10. Secret emisaries are being sent all through the South and 
"West to write up communications for Northern newspapers, 
w T atch every movement which tends to injure Radical success, and 
by words and deeds bring on trouble and strife. 

11. Almost every day the newspapers contain telegraphic ac- 
counts from the South of outrages being committed by armed 
negroes. For a negro in the South to declare his intention to 
vote the Democratic ticket, his life must pay the forfeit, as was 
recently the case in South Carolina and Tennessee. So great 
are the fears of many already that they are daily expecting to 
read of wholesale massacres of white people in the South. 



RADICALISM VS. LIBERTY. 



27 



12. Republicans openly boast that if Tilden is elected he will 
not be allowed to take the office ; that they will have a majority 
in the Senate and will throw out enough States to declare the 
election null and void, and that Grant will hold over. 

13. It has leaked out that the infamous plot has been agreed 
upon to appoint 100,000 men in the Southern States United 
States deputy marshals, just before the election, to arrest and 
keep from the polls honest voters who refuse to vote the Repub- 
lican ticket ; that these commissions are now being made out and 
distributed mainly to negroes and carpet-baggers. 

14. Republicans declare that if Tilden is elected the election 
will be declared illegal, and that Grant will declare himself Dic- 
tator, and will receive assistance from England to establish his 
monarchy. 

We might continue, without limit, to enumerate the many 
grievances and outrages that are daily and hourly being practiced 
by the ruling party of the country, all of which are well known 
to . every intelligent and observing man ; but we deem the few 
facts recited sufficient to cause every lover of his country to stop 
and reflect on the deplorable state of affairs that exists. The 
time for action has arrived, and every man who desires liberty 
and the perpetuation of a Republican form of government in 
this country should at once resolve in his own mind to do every- 
thing within his power to put a stop to the ruin and oppression 
that is daily occuring. Another four years 5 lease of power of the 
Radical party will most assuredly bankrupt the country and drift 
the people into a monarchial form of government. You have 
but to look around you to see the fruits of Radical misrule. Look 
at the thousands and tens of thousands of workingmen and me- 
chanics idle all over the country, with their wives and children, 
without the necessary food to sustain life. Business of every kind 



28 



RADICALISM VS. LIBERTY. 



is depressed, and scarcely a man can be found who is u making 
ends meet." It is nothing but taxation and depression on every 
hand. Men are becoming desperate, and robbery and murders are 
of daily occurrence all over our once peaceful and happy country. 

There is no hope for the future, for the better, save in a 
change of government officers. The prayers and cries of millions 
of our people are daily ascending to Heaven for relief from the 
awful doom that seems to await us as a nation and people. Is 
there a man so recreant to the true principles of justice and 
right, that he is unwilling to add his voice and vote to relieve the 
country and people from the terrible future that seems to await 
us. The whole treasury of the country is in the hands of a few 
who will not stop at any means to carry out their nefarious de- 
signs. The only salvation or hope that remains is for such an 
uprising of the people as will teach these fiends in human shape, 
these destroyers of the only true Republican government on the 
habitable globe, that the great American people are alive to their 
true interests, and'will, in November next, show them that they 
love liberty, freedom and country, far better than party ties. In 
November next the ximerican people must decide whether they 
are freemen, or whether they will be the serfs of a few designing- 
men who are running the country for their own personal and 
pecuniary interests. The past record of the Republican party is 
a sufficient warning to the great American people of what may 
be expected in the near future, should another lease of power be 
granted them. The only course left for the American people is 
to u act well their part" and a few short days will seal the fate 
of this country for all time to come.